Ten deadly poison in the chart of chemical weapons, poison gas warfare are more terrible
remember World War II, Japan’s war against China’s Tsinghua University, in addition to the clear cut, so China is the costliest gas war. Now, standing on the gas is not recognized internationally, but there are still many very large lethal chemical weapons. The following www.Ranking-us.com show you the 10 most lethal chemical weapons agents in the rankings, gas warfare are more terrible.
Ten chart lethal agent in chemical weapons: tabun, sarin, mustard, nitrogen mustard, Lewis gas, phosgene, hydrocyanic acid, hydrogen chloride, lachrymatory agents, Peets
is a colorless liquid pure fruit flavor, industrial brown, bitter almond odor, a high concentration of ammonia smelly. Boiling point of 220 ~ 240 ℃. M.p. -48 ~ -50 ℃. At 25 deg.] C the saturated vapor pressure of 7.599Pa. Volatility was 0.500mg / L. Semi-persistent agents. Exposure applicable to terrestrial, air can also be used made aerosol exposure. Inhalation poisoning half lethal dose (LD50) of approximately 400mg · min / m3, about half the loss in a dose 300mg · min / m3; transdermal half lethal dose LD50 of 14 ~ 21mg / L. Disinfection and first aid and sarin poisoning same.
In 1936, Germany’s Gerhard Schrader (G.Schrader) Dr. first synthesis of tabun, and he himself a slight poisoning in early times, becoming the first victim of tabun. Although tabun than hydrogen cyanide, phosgene and other older agents, but because of its tactical performance is less than sarin, sarin toxicity only 1/3, so far belong to gradually phase out the poison.
US military code GA. In the Iran-Iraq war, Iraq Tabun first time on a larger scale for combat. 1981 January to November, the Iranian army positions in the Iraqi army had fired shells tabun, causing casualties.
sarin, scientific name mefloquine acid isopropyl Sarin, English name, is a byproduct of Nazi Germany during World War II development of pesticides obtainedA deadly nerve gas, can paralyze the central nervous. Chemical formula: (CH3) 2CHOOPF (CH3)
It is commonly used in warfare agent, the harmful effects of nerve agents by classification.
Synthesis of: Methyl oxo phosphorus dichloride is reacted with hydrogen fluoride to give methyl oxo two phosphorus fluoride, phosphorus dichloride, methyl and oxo reaction with isopropanol, to give the sarin.
mustard as blister agents, eye, respiratory tract and skin have a role. On the skin can cause redness, blistering or even ulceration. Eye contact can cause conjunctivitis, corneal ulceration or opacity. Vapor or mist inhalation airway injury, high concentrations can cause lung damage, severe injuries showed throat, trachea, bronchial mucosa necrotic inflammation. Systemic poisoning symptoms, general malaise, fatigue, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, depression, lethargy, CNS depression and parasympathetic nervous excitement and other symptoms. Severe poisoning can cause death. International Center for Research on Cancer (IARC) has been recognized as a carcinogen.
[alias] An Xiaoxinzhuang; nitrogen mustards; en Bixing; benign tumor, diclofenac ethyl amine, than the new TU, TU of Hing, mechlorethamine hydrochloride
Foreign name] Chlormethine
indications mainly for malignant lymphoma, lung cancer, head and neck cancer, but also with chronic leukemia, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, choriocarcinoma and the like.
Consumption usage vein: the bolus per kilogram body weight 0.1mg, 2 ~ 3 times per week, total of 30 ~ 60mg course of treatment. Pleural Injection: Each 5 ~ 10mg, 1 week, usually no more than 4 to 5 times (more required to be used after dilution).
[Note] 1. gastrointestinal reactions are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. 2. Systemic reactions are fatigue, weakness, dizziness, chills and fever. 3. Bone marrow suppression: the total number of white blood cells and thrombocytopenia, 2 weeks general withdrawal recoverable. 4. Local reactions: YES help to skin irritation, can cause ulceration, blistering, as in the extravascular leakage may be citedSince pain and localized necrosis. 5. liver and kidney dysfunction should be used with caution in patients.
[Specification] Injection: Each 5mg, 10mg.
5, Lewis gas
Lewis gas is one of the main representatives of erosive agents thereof. Blister agents mainly through the respiratory tract, skin, eyes, etc. into the human body, damage body tissue, causing inflammation of the respiratory tract mucosal necrosis, skin erosion, photophobia eye Latong even blindness. Such agents infiltration, poisoning requires long-term treatment to heal.
chloride, also known as α- dichloro arsine. Of formula ClCH = CHAsCl2. Colorless liquid, geranium odor; m.p. -13 deg.] C, a boiling point of 190 deg.] C; slightly soluble in water, soluble in organic solvents. Lewis gas is a chemical warfare agent, which is volatile and penetrating power are stronger than mustard gas can cause skin irritation, blistering or even ulceration, can damage parts of the body organs, particularly the lungs. Bleach, alkali or the like can destroy its toxicity.
6, phosgene to
Preparation laboratory, carbon tetrachloride can be used with hydrochloric acid. The carbon tetrachloride was heated to 55-60 deg.] C, fuming hydrochloric acid was added dropwise, which happened to escape phosgene, for the use of liquid phosgene, phosgene is condensed through will occur.
is industrially usually obtained by the reaction of carbon monoxide with chlorine phosgene. This is a strongly exothermic reaction, with activated carbon should synthesizer water cooling jacket to control the reaction temperature of about 200 ℃. In order to obtain high corrosion phosgene and reducing equipment, thoroughly dried chlorine gas and carbon monoxide at the time of mixing, the excess should be properly maintained. The mixed gas introduced into the upper portion of the synthesizer, after the activated carbon layer, rapidly converted to phosgene. When selecting size of the synthesizer Ф700 × 2900, and each can produce phosgene 200t. Consumption of raw materials: chlorine gas (> 99%) 925kg / t, oxygen (under standard conditions) 268 (m3) kg / t, coke 400kg / t.
7, hydrocyanic acid
Health Hazard: respiratory enzyme inhibition, causing suffocation cells. Acute poisoning: a short inhalation of high concentrationOf hydrogen cyanide gas, respiratory arrest and died immediately. At the deceased non-clinical divided into four: prodromal period mucosa irritation, breathing accelerate deepened, fatigue, headache; oral have apical, oral numb. Dyspnea of dyspnea, increased blood pressure, skin and mucous was bright red. Convulsions period, convulsions, coma, respiratory failure. Paralysis of muscle relaxation, breathing and heartbeat stopped dead. It can cause eye, skin burns, poisoning due to absorption. Chronic effects: neurasthenic syndrome, dermatitis.
8, hydrogen chloride
Health hazards: This eye and respiratory mucosa have a strong stimulating effect. Acute poisoning: headache, dizziness, nausea, eye pain, cough, bloody sputum, hoarseness, difficulty breathing, chest tightness, chest pain. Severe pneumonia, pulmonary edema, atelectasis. Visible ulcers or corneal opacity. Direct skin contact with a large number of miliary red papules and pain was flushing hot can occur. Chronic effects: Long-term high-level exposure can cause chronic bronchitis, gastrointestinal dysfunction and Dental erosion.
9, lachrymatory agents
have a strong irritation of the eyes burning or stinging, tearing and immediately causes a large number of blepharospasm. Severe cases can affect vision, to stimulate the nose, throat, causing a runny nose, sneezing and chest pain, which may lead to nausea and vomiting. Quickly relieve symptoms persist after a few minutes exposure time is short, leaving the contaminated area. Long time exposure can cause conjunctivitis and exposed parts of skin damage. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations can cause pulmonary edema, but rare.
Tear agent mainly chloroacetophenone CN, CR Xie Er, cyano Australia toluene, tear gas and the like. Xi Aisi (CS) is a new agent both have sneezing tear resistance.
Bi hereby is a white solid powder, scientific name benzilate -3- enjoin quinoline ester, is incapacitating agents . The concept of modern incapacitating agent by the British Hale first proposed in 1915, the United States rushed to incapacitating agents carried out extensive research work. Peets mainly through respiratory poisoning, symptoms of central nervous system disorders based. Vietnam War US military has repeatedly use Peets, and call them “kindness” of weapons. According to historical records,There were many more army officers and soldiers poisoning disability later was brutally stabbed to death with a bayonet US military.